GE fish

GE fish have been developed for food production: salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), striped sea bass (Morone saxatalis), carp (Cyprinus carpio). GE salmon is developed and produced by AquaBounty Technologies. GE Atlantic salmon has been sold in Canada since 2017. This GE salmon is sold without a GM (Genetically modified) or GE (genetically engineered) label. This GE salmon was approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) in November 2015. In Norway, it is possible to develop GM or GE salmon and trout with inserted sterility with Crispr Cas9 in laboratories.

This GE (Genetically edited / Gene modified) salmon is composed of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with growth hormone from Pacific Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and genetic regulatory elements from deep-sea eel tusk (Macrozoarces americanus). These genetic changes lead to a continuous production of growth hormone in this GE Atlantic salmon. In the future, the manufacturer will produce a triploid fish version that will be sterile, also less of a threat to wild salmon should it escape. Their GE stock and operations are in the same location in Canada as the endangered wild Atlantic salmon that are in  22 rivers.

GE (Genetically edited) Tilapia Line flt-01 (Oreochromis niloticus) has been developed by Intrexon, which is a subsidiary of AquaBounty Technologies. The producers have been granted an exemption from GM (Gen Modified) regulation by Argentina's National Advisory Commission for Agricultural Biotechnology (CONABIA), where aquaculture for Tilapia flt-01 has been established. The decision that flt-01 farming is legal in Argentina is based on the fact that there is no inserted foreign gene in this tilapia hybrid. Tilapia Line flt-01 has "flt" traits which originate from a recessive gene change. This tilapia is homozygous flt/flt for a recessive gene that leads to increased fillet yield, i.e. more fillet for less feed. Tilapia flt-01 should have an increase of more than 50% for fillet yield.

GE is used in terms of microbes, plants and animals that have had their DNA expression changed by stopping one or more genes from being translated into proteins or changed by inserting  a new sequence in a gene. A metaphor like "scissors" is used to describe the method of stopping a selected gene from being processed into a protein. Different CRISPR/cas9 and TALEN methods developed in laboratories are used to be able to "scissor out" or "glue in" selected genes. Manufacturers refuse to have their products branded with a name that is unpopular. They would prefer to have no name or stamp on their products either as GMO, GM or GE, because these could become unpopular with consumers.

In recent times, "Genetically edited" is an expression of new sequences in a gene where the gene has been cut. In EU law it is legislated  that Genetically edited (GE) must be interpreted with the same law that applies to Genetically modified (GM). Genetically modified (GM) is an abbreviation for genetically modified organism (GMO). This means that the GMO Act in EU countries also applies to Genetically engineered or Genetically edited in the EU. This means that all GE must go through the same rules as GMOs. In contrast, other countries in the world have different rules. This means that it is possible for GE organisms such as GE fish for farming to be accepted in some countries outside the EU even though it is not allowed in the EU. It is also possible to sell their products as blind tests without label information with GE or GM on the label to prevent stigma.



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