Fast growing GMO trees

Several different types of GMO and GE trees have been developed for fuel. GMO-Eucalyptus (E.grandis x E.urophylla) H421 has inserted CEL1 gene for faster growth, and GMO-Eucalyptus (E.grandis x E.urophylla) EH1 has inserted CBF2 gene for cold tolerance. GE poplar (Salicaceae Populus) has been developed for fuel and GMO pine (Pinus radiata) with insect resistance. The purpose of these crops may be to satisfy requirements for an increased share of biofuel in the country's programs to reduce the use of fossil fuels. There are many genetic changes to be tested. Some of these GE crops will be able to produce pollen that can be transferred to regular Poplar trees. In other cases, GMO technology will be used to prevent pollen production in GE trees.

GMO-EucalyptusH421 has inserted the cel1 gene from spring sycamore (Arabidopsis thaliana), this CEL1 gene leads to increased CEL1 recombinant protein, which is a manipulated protein to be able to form large quantities of the proteins that will promote faster growth. The trait of CEL1 in EucolyptusH421 is volumetric wood elevation. In practice, this means more wood in less time. In practice, this means faster production of wood for use as fuel. The gene CEL1 is inserted into eucalyptus germ cells through bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) that can penetrate the walls of the plant cells and release the modified CEL1 gene into the genome of the germ cells in a culture. In a world characterized by rapid and unpredictable climate change, these trees probably contribute to additional unpredictability. Rapidly growing tree plantations can lead to depleted groundwater.

Another type of genetically modified eucalyptus tree "GE freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus" is being cultivated and is under development. This has been developed with some climate challenges in mind. Freeze tolerant EucalyptusEH1 was developed by ArborGen LLC by inserting a CBF2 gene from spring boxflower (Arabidopsis thaliania) into the fast-growing but freeze-prone hybrid E.grandis x E.urophylla. Eucalyptus variant EH1 was chosen because better growth and wood quality, and adaptation to different types of soil. Gene modification with the CBF-2 gene was carried out with bacteria (A. tumefaciens). Eucalyptus is known to be highly flammable, as well as leading to depleted groundwater and can therefore be a threat to nearby communities.

GE poplar (Salicaceae populus) is a fast growing tree. It is approx. 30 species in the northern hemisphere. Genetic engineering is used to develop faster growth, reduced lignin in the tree trunk, herbicide resistance, insect resistance and disease resistance. Poplar is used in the USA to meet requirements for biofuel, biomass and paper. Fast-growing poplars are seen as energy plants that can grow in energy forests and be used for combustion. Poplar is widespread with many wild relatives and has very light pollen that can travel far with the wind. This may allow GE poplar to interbreed with common poplar. Reduced lignin will reduce strength and resistance to pests and pathogens. Reduced lignin will also change the microbiome on and in the plant. Developments such as Bt GE poplar will lead to unpredictable changes in the plant microbiome.

GE pine trees (Pinus radiata) have been approved in New Zealand. GE pine trees have inserted crystal toxin proteins for insect resistance from Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk), against "painted apple moth" (Teia anartoides). This invasive moth has larvae that can eat and damage pine trees up to the age of 8 years. It can also damage apple trees. The species was discovered in New Zealand in 1999 but was declared extinct in 2006 after aerial spraying with the insecticide pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) in 2002.



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