Genetically modified apples with the invisible damage.

GMO technology uses a known plant pest (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) to insert a foreign body of DNA somewhere into a plant's genome. This is precisely what makes existing apple varieties such as Golden delicious and Granny Smith GMO Arctic varieties. The technology is that the inserted DNA is intended to suppress the expression of a natural gene. The inserted hybrid gene suppresses the expression of a natural gene that codes for the natural enzyme PPO-Polyphenoloxidase in apples. PPO enzyme rapidly turns ripe fruit tissue to brown where apple cells are crushed.

Crushing of plant cells can occur when you transport or handle them. In apples, crushed cells allow the mixing of an enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in one part of the cell, with polyphenolics found in another part of the cell. When PPO and polyphenolics are combined, phenols are formed. To counteract this enzymatic browning, the gene for PPO is "turned off". To achieve this GMO technique, Agrobacterium-mediated gene insertion was used. A plasmid with a hybrid transgenic PGAS was integrated into the apple genome from GMO Agrobacterium. When translated by the host cells, the resulting strands of RNA can bind with strands of RNA from the PPO gene and inhibit expression of PPO genes.

The PGAS transgene consists of parts from four groups from ten PPO-encoding genes identified in the apple genome. Transgenic PGAS consisting of four parts from four genes was placed in a plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The plasmid was equipped with a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter to read transgenic PGAS and the transcription terminator from A. tumefaciens to stop reading the gene. In addition, the plasmid was equipped with a gene for resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin in both bacterial culture and in cell culture.

The plasmid was inserted into apple cells using the biological properties of parasitic Agrobacterium to insert DNA plasmid with GMO changes into a host cell. Successful introduction of the genetically engineered transgene into apple cells was determined by growing the cells on medium inoculated with antibiotics. After a purification with a particular antibiotic, surviving cells can be assumed to hold the gene for antibiotic resistance and the adjacent transgenic PGAS.

These plants can probably form pollen that can be crossed with other apple trees of the same genus so that "contamination" from the GMO apple pollen to traditional apple blossoms will occur if bees can carry it forward. From an organic farmer's point of view, introducing GMO apple trees will not prevent the pollination of their orchards from the GMO pollen. The GMO perspective is probably also to avoid pollination from other orchards by avoiding them by keeping a distance and putting up hedges. Bees for pollination in orchards will usually move near their hive. But despite this, the spread of the seeds in the environment can also occur, and a channel to spread GMO apple in the environment can lead to more GMO outside its territory.


An Overview of Arctic Apples

Now genetically modified apples are sold in the USA and Canada

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