The genetically modified clove (Dianthus caryophyllus) FLO-40689-6 has inserted a gene from the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) which can give garden cloves resistance to pesticides containing sulphonylureas. Chlorsulfuron, which is a sulfonylurea herbicide, was used early on to select for the cells that have had the genes inserted for modification. It is inserted SuRB-gene from tobacco that leads to the production of the ALS enzyme (Acetolactate Synthase). ALS from tobacco and which is inserted this garden clove is resistant to chlorsulfuron. Sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron cannot inhibit or stop the activity of ALS enzyme in cloves derived from inserted sadB from the tobacco plant. The cells and the plant can therefore survive treatments with chlorsulfuron.
The garden angelica FLO-40689-6 has two central inserted sequences which together make the plants have a modified flower colour. There is an insert dfr-gene from petunia (Petunia x hybrida) and et f3´5´h-gene from pansy (Viola sp.) which together will process the DFR and F3´5´H enzymes. To promote expression of f3´5´h -gene from pansy, a genetic element is used for CHS (chalcone synthase) originating from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). These two enzymes (DFR and F3´5´H) can enable the production of blue pigments (delphinids) in the petals of the flowering plants from which they originate. Inserted garden carnation FLO-40689-6 leads these to water-soluble purple and pink-like colors in the petals.
Blue violet delphinidin is an anthocyanin and is named after the genus Delphinium in the sunflower family. By contrast, inserting genes for pigments for blue colors does not guarantee that the plant will develop blue flowers. Environmental factors such as pH in the vacuole, presence of trace metals such as Zn and Cu, and age will possibly affect the outer color of the flowers. Being able to give flowers such as carnations and roses blue colors is the endless challenge for those who probably want to make the "impossible" possible for some flower shops. Illustration of the flower FLORIGENE Moonaqua, which may originate from FLO-40689-6, shows soft rose water colors.
Petunia originally originates from South America and is produced commercially in Ecuador and Colombia. The manufacturer Suntory Flowers Limited excludes the possibility that their Dianthus can reproduce. The clove stems are cut while the buds are still closed. This prevents pollination and the production of seeds. Garden carnations in plantations are propagated by vegetative reproduction. Pollen in carnation flowers is spread by insects such as moths where carnation plants live wild. In nature, the colors will attract pollinators and changes in color will affect which pollinators they get attention from.
A week's time difference between pollen maturation and stigma receptivity means that flower cultivation of these carnation plants can be done by hand. It can all take place indoors in a cubicle away from potential pollen theft by moths. On the other hand, illegal spreading or sale of seeds to them will probably lead to growth outdoors.
Chlorsulfuron can be used on these plants probably without harming them. Chlorsulfuron is highly toxic to aquatic aquatic plants (macrophytes). These are adversely affected at concentrations as low as 0.25 parts per trillion (ppb). These are extremely low concentrations and where a significant toxic effect has been demonstrated on aquatic plants. It will prevent algae growth on, for example, the stems and possibly extend their lifespan in water.