The Norwegian Environmental Protection Association has opposed the sale of genetically modified maize 1507 x NK603

Maize 1507 x NK603 has a total of three central inserted gene sequences that give the maize plant tolerance to glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium herbicides, and protection against the larvae of certain insect species in the Lepidoptera order, such as Sesamia spp and Ostrinia nubilalis. The cp4 epsps gene has been inserted into maize NK603 to give high glyphosate resistance and the pat gene into maize 1507 for resistance to glufosinate-ammonium. Maize 1507 has also inserted the cry1F gene which produces proteins that are highly toxic to the larvae of Lepidoptera pests that will eat this Maize 1507 x NK603.

The results of a thorough molecular analysis of NK603 CP4-EPSPS show that the molecular profiles of spruce from NK603, with or without Roundup spraying during cultivation, are not equivalent to isogenic non-transgenic controls. This means that recent research methods have demonstrated that food and feed from NK603 is clearly different from non-GMO maize. This is in contrast to statements from the manufacturer based on older and less advanced research. These investigations were on maize fir from NK603 with genetic modifications and on maize fir before any genetic modifications. The differences in profiles in plant proteins and plant metabolites were detected, and were probably caused by this cp4-epsps gene modification in NK603 and also by the traces of Roundup where this was used on NK603. Roundup is manufactured by Monsanto.

In a further study, the effect of very low concentrations in the drinking water with Roundup on liver proteins and liver metabolites in rats was investigated. It was documented that of approx. 1900 different proteins discovered in the liver of 10 experimental animals (rats) were approx. 210 protein profiles significantly changed at low concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicide (0.05µg/litre glyphosate equivalent dilution) in the drinking water over two years. The blood samples from the tail of these rats showed significantly increased changes in serum triglycerides after one year, compared to a control without any Roundup in the drinking water. The results of this investigation imply the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The concentration of this herbicide in the drinking water of these test animals that were examined is between the limits allowed in the EU for drinking water and certain foodstuffs. Both Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) and glyphosate contribute to the toxicity of herbicides such as Roundup.

The pat gene has been inserted into maize1507. The pat gene is inserted to form an enzyme that can break down glufosinate into glufosinate ammonium. This makes maize 1507 and 1507 x NK603 resistant to herbicides with the active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. Glufosinate ammonium is the active substance in herbicides such as Liberty. Liberty is manufactured by Bayer. This means that up to two different herbicides must be used on this maize plant, which until now has been produced by two different manufacturers.

Cry1F has been inserted which will form CRY1F endotoxin which is highly toxic to Lepidoptera pests such as the larvae of moths which will eat this maize. Ingestion will lead to cell lysis in the midgut followed by septicemia and death for the larvae that eat the maize plant 1507 x NK603. The relatively high concentrations of CRY1F in maize 1507 x NK603 have made the plant controversial because of cry1F. There is widespread resistance, Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) may have developed resistance to CRY1F protein as in maize1507.


Mesnage R., Agapito-Tenfen SZ, Vilperte V., Renney G. Ward M., Séralini GE., Nodari RO, and MN Antoniou. 2016. An integrated multi-omics analysis of the NK603 Roundup-tolerant GM maize reveals metabolism disturbances caused by the transformation process. Sci. Rep. 6, 37855; doi: 10.1038/srep37855

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