Profoxydin as in regulation (EU) 2019/1176 is to be used as herbicide against grass. This active substance in some pesticides is known to be hormone disrupting. Profoxydim is used for post-control of grass grass in rice (Oryza sativa). Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) can be a very serious weed in rice, corn, soybeans and many other crops, and prefers tropical climates. E. crus-galli is among the three most serious weeds of rice in many countries. Junglerice (Echinola colona) is common in crops of rice and maize.
Silvertop grass (Leptochloa fusca) is often a serious weed of rice in many countries, and is of particular concern in Spanish rice fields where rice is grown for food. Giant reed (Arundo donax) is one of the world's top 100 worst invasive species, it originates from Asia and has been introduced all over the world. Yellow bristlegrass (Setaria pumila) is widespread in rice in China. Where rice is widely used for feed, traces of herbicides such as Profoxydim on rice will probably also occur.
Limit values in the EU (European Union) are set at 0.01mg/kg for rice, maize, wheat and other grain species. This is the limit of detection of the substance. Higher concentrations of 0.05mg/kg are allowed for flowers (Chamomile, Hibiscus, Rose and others) and pistils (saffron and others) and for honey. This may be because the amount of these to be fed becomes relatively very small. On the other hand, it is possible that larger quantities of honey are used in feed (or food). All the plants that are generally used as additives to change the color or taste of feed are permitted limit values of 0.05mg substance/kg plant. The limit value of 0.05mg/kg for honey indicates that these higher concentrations can be in the environment of bees, on plants, on flowers, on pollen, in honey and in beehives.
Higher concentrations of Profoxydin are permitted in honey products. Where honey bee populations are in decline (mainly due to pesticides containing neonicotinoid products), higher concentrations in honey are allowed possibly because it can accumulate in honey, in addition to the other substances. Hormone-disrupting substances such as Profoxydin can have unwanted effects even at very low concentrations. Rice with honey products may be charged with values that may be too high.
Profoxydin is registered as an endocrine disruptor. There are also Difenoconazole, Lamba-cyhalothrin, and Penconazole, which are all listed. Combinations of these in the food may have the potential to form synergistic effects. This means that the harm from several endocrine-disrupting pesticides can be more than what is expected from counting up the sum of effects for each substance. There are also other hormone-disrupting pesticides that may have been used on the same plants, such as 2,4-D, glyphosate, and others. The large number of hormone-increasing pesticides is an environmental problem and any increase in the number is inadvisable. The substance profoxydin is registered as carcinogenic and toxic to reproduction.